Male Breast Cancer: a review of risk factors


Seyed Hesam Addin Bani Hashemi


Male breast cancer (MBC) is so rare and uncommon that every year in USA and UK, only 0.5-1% of the patients diagnosed with breast cancer are men and among all men's cancer-related deaths less than 0.1% are caused by MBC. In this review article the most important and well-known risk factors of MBC including age, race, genetics and family history, ratio of estrogen to androgen, hormone receptors, Klinefelter's Syndrome, Cowden's Syndrome, life style, and environmental exposures are discussed.


Male breast cancer, Breast cancer, Risk factor

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